When you can drop joining words with adjective clauses.
"the person who lives next door"; or
"the time that we went to Disneyland".
Remember that we use a joining word to connect a noun to the adjective phrase:
These joining words can be left out. We sometimes cut the joining words in spoken English and in informal writing:
This is not always possible.
To understand this next point, you need to know about identifying and describing adjective clauses. Let's review quickly:
A describing clause is not needed in a sentence (the information it gives us is a nice bonus), but an identifying clause is important and cannot be cut from the sentence:
We use identifying clauses when we want to be more specific. Often it is because we don't know the name of something or someone (like in the example above where we want to know the name of the TV show). We use a describing clause when we want to be more helpful. The information in the describing clause is an extra thought.
You can only leave the joining words out of an identifying clause (type 2 above), if there is a subject in the clause. You must use the joining word when you use a describing clause. Here are some examples:
|With joining words||Without joining words|
|1. Describing Clauses||Naoto likes to watch True Blood, which is a show about vampires.||NOT:
||You must use a joining word.|
|Naoto, who works for a Swiss company, studied English in Australia.||NOT:
|Kazusa-Ichinomiya, where I used to live, is near the sea.||NOT:
|2. Identifying Clauses||What is the name of that TV show that you like?||OR: What is the name of that TV show you like?||With or without the joining word is OK.|
|That's the restaurant where we often eat.||OR: That's the restaurant we often eat at.|
|A person who Sam knows will meet us at the airport.||OR: A person Sam knows will meet us at the airport.|
|We'll never forget the day when the aliens came.||OR: We'll never forget the day the aliens came.|
|You can ask me any time that you have a question.||OR: You can ask me any time you have a question.|
|The reason why the boss fired him is none of your business.||OR: The reason the boss fired him is none of your business.|
|Can you believe the way that he spoke to me?||OR: Can you believe the way he spoke to me?|
|I am looking for a place where my friend can stay.||OR: I am looking for a place my friend can stay.|
Note: Dropping the joining words has a couple of really difficult points to it.
It is hard to think about these points while you speak, but if you make a mistake, now you know why!